Sophialinus

Ancient Egyptian Calendar

Ancient Egyptian Calendar
      Ancient Egypt (Kemet)

Ancient Egypt (Kemet) used both a lunar and solar calendar.


The ancient Egyptians had both a lunar calendar, and a solar 365 day
 calendar, which was divided into three seasons of four months each.
  Each month consisted of 30 days (3 weeks of 10 days per week).
   Five additional 'Heriu-renpet' days were added at the end of the
    solar calendar for the birth of the Goddesses/Gods:
     Wesir/'Osiris', Heru-Wer/'Horus', Set/'Seth', Aset/'Isis' and
      Nebthet/'Nephthys'.  An extra day would be added as needed to
       keep in sync with solar leap year.


The heliacal rise of Sirius just before dawn was an extremely important
 event for the Ancient Egyptians.  The first visibility of the star
  Sirius on the morning sky, called heliacal rising, fell close to the
   Inundation of the Nile and was the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian
    solar year.  3,000 years ago the heliacal rising was in early July,
     currently it is around August 1st.  I use August 1st to calculate
      the Kemet lunar/solar calendar.


 Wep Renpet - The solar New Year Festival
  The Ancient Egyptian Solar New Year is one of the most sacred festivals
   in the calendar, as it is the single event in the year in which the
    energy of the Sun God and Stellar Goddess combined was ritually drawn
     into the sacred statues of the temples.
    

 The first season of four months was  
  Akhet (inundation), when the nile flooded;

 The second season of four months was
  Peret (emergence), when crops were planted, cultivated, and maintained;  

 The third season of four months was
  Shomu (low-water) when crops were harvested.


  Initially there were no names for the solar months
   they were known as

     I Akhet;      August     1 to August    30
    II Akhet;      August    31 to September 29
   III Akhet;      September 30 to October   29
    IV Akhet;      October   30 to November  28
     I Peret;      November  29 to December  28
    II Peret;      December  28 to January   27
   III Peret;      January   28 to February  26
    IV Peret;      February  27 to March     28
     I Shomu;      March     29 to April     27
    II Shomu;      April     28 to May       27
   III Shomu;      May       28 to June      26
    IV Shomu.      June      27 to July      26
   'Heriu-renpet'  July      27 to July      31
         Celebrates the birth of the Goddesses/Gods:
          Wesir/'Osiris', Heru-Wer/'Horus', Set/'Seth', Aset/'Isis' and Nebthet/'Nephthys'.


    Eventually  names were developed for the seasonal months,
     the majority of which were derived from those used in the
      lunar calendar.



The new lunar month would start on the end of the old moon and a
 new day would start at sunset.  The first new moon after the heliacal
  rising was the beginning of the lunar year.  Each
     lunar month was named after an Ancient Egyptian Goddess, God, or
      major festival.  An Intercalary (13th) Month was added as needed
       when there were 13 new moons in a solar year.



  The New Moon Festival is Pesdjentiu.
   There is a light in honor of the Eye of Heru which is lost at this time,
    in preparation for tepy-abed or the opening of the first crescent.  To
     celebrate there are live offerings from the plant and animal kingdoms.
      Tepy-Semdet is the Full Moon Festival.  The last day of the Kemetic
       lunar month honours Ra, Heru, and Wesir.


   The Original Kemet Names of the lunar months are:  
     1-Tekhy;         2-Menhet;    3-Hwt-Hrw;    4-Ka-Hr-Ka;
     5-Sf-Bdt;        6-Rekh Wer;  7-Rekh Neds;  8-Renwett (Pa-N);
     9-Hnsw (PA-n-); 10-Hnt-Htj;  11-Ipt Hmt;   12-Wep-Renpet;     13-Djehuty.


   The  Names of the lunar months listed in Original/Late/Greek
        Original     /Late           /Greek
   Akhet
      1)Tekhy        /Djehuty        /Thoth;       God Thoth
      2)Menhet       /pA-n-IpAt      /Phaophi;     God Ptah
      3)Hwt-Hrw      /Hwt-Hrw        /Athyr;       Goddess Hathor
      4)Ka-Hr-Ka     /Ka-Hr-Ka       /Choiak;      Goddess Sekhet
   Peret
      5)Sf-Bdt       /tA-aAbt        /Tybi;        God Khopry
      6)Rekh Wer     /(pA-n)mhr      /Mechir;      God Rekeh-Ur
      7)Rekh Neds    /pA-n-Imn Htpw  /Phamenoth;   God Rekeh-Netches
      8)Renwett      /(Pa-N)Rnnwtt   /Pharmuthi;   Goddess Rennutet
   Shomu
      9)Hnsw         /PA-n-)xnsw     /Pachons;     God Khonsu
     10)Hnt-htj      /pA-n-Int       /Payni;       God Khenthy
     11)Ipt Hmt      /Ipip           /Epiphi;      God Ipt
     12)Wep-Renpet   /mswt-Ra        /Mesore;      God Horus
     13)Djehuty.



1)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) first lunar month is
 Tekhy/Djehuty/Thoth.
  Sacred to Thoth/Tekhi/Tehuti, the ibis-headed (somtimes
   a full baboon) moon God of truth, writing, and figuring things.


This month is also Holy to Sekhmet (The destructive form of
 Hathor.)  Isis is the Greek name for Hathor.  Sekhmet and
  Hathor transformed into each other.  On many ancient temple
   text they are refered to as one and the same Goddess.  Ptah
    is the consort of Sekhmet and is depicted the same as
     Osiris, the consort of Isis.  Mysteries of Osiris and the
      Feast of Lights of Isis are festivals celebrated during
        this lunar month.


Day one is the Feast of Thoth, Opet: The marriage of Ammon-Re
 to his wife Ammonet.  The Birth of Aten is day three.  On the
  9th day is the Procession of Hathor and Ihy.  This is a
   celebration of the Goddess Hathor/Hwt-Hrw and Her son Ihy.
    This is a festival of exuberance, joy and passion. Ihy is
     the personification of the ectasy and joy that emanates
      as the sound of the Sistrum, the sacred rattle of Egyptian
        ritual. He is a God of happiness, the zest for living
        and the ability to abandon oneself to the moment.
         This festival celebrates these qualities through sacred
           texts and dance. The Festival of Inebriation was
            celebrated from the 20th to the 24th day.


In Ancient Egypt the terms "drunkeness" and "inebriation"
 did not refer soley to intoxication through the use of
  substances. Rather inebriation was seen as a state of ecstasy
   that frequently bordered on trance in which communication
    with Gods was possible. As such, these states of
     intoxication were induced through ritual, with the
      help of chanting and music.


There is evidence that indicates that the major Festival
 of the month is the true "Festival of Intoxication." The
  possible mistaken belief that it honors Thoth not Hathor/Sekhmet
   stems from the fact that the feast falls in the month of Thoth.
     Strong evidence points to the myth recounting the destruction
     of mankind as the basis for this festival. According to this
      story, in order to end Hathor’s bloody rampage, Re tricked
       her into drinking beer laced with mandrake and red ocher.
        He flooded Egypt with this drugged beer. Hathor/Sekhmet,
         thinking it was blood, consumed so much of it that she
          became drunk and passed out, and she lost interest in
           destroying humanity. The yearly Innundation by the
            Nile, with its rich, red silt, is the earthly
             re-enactment of this flood of beer. This feast of
              intoxication is the ancient Egyptian's "October fest."


The first and third lunar months are the Egyptian Goddess Sekhmet's
 ritual times.  Great feasting, drinking, and merry making take
  place during Her rituals.  She is a Sun Goddess as well as the
   Goddess of  destruction, rebirth, and healing.  She is called
    the Lady of the place of the beginning of time.  One who was
     before the Gods were.  She holds an Ankh in one hand and a
      Lotus Wand in the other; She wears a red dress.  Her Name
       is derived from the Egyptian word 'Sekhem', which means
        "power" or "might". The word sekhem' is literally
         inseparable from Sekhmet and Her worship.


Sekhmet's main cult center was located in Memphis (Men-nefer) and
 was part of the Divine Triad there, which was made up of Sekhmet,
  Ptah, and Nefertem.  Sekhmet is the wife of Ptah, the 'Creator'
   Netjer of the Ancient Egyptians and their son is called Nefertem,
    who is also closely associated with healers and healing.


Sekhmet's action is always the right, or 'appropriate action'.
 When She destroys it is an appropriate destruction or vengeance.
  It is never chaotic or random.  It is always what is needed at the
   time.  She removes threats and punishes those who do wrong against
    Ma'at.  The God Ptah is her consort and Nefertem is their son.



2)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) second lunar month is
 Menhet/pA-n-IpAt/Phaophi(Paopy).
  Sacred to Ptah/Menkhet, the sun God and universal architect
   God who commanded all the Gods into existence, patron of
    masons; consort of Sekhmet and father of Nefertem.
     What Ptah thought and spoke; Sekhmet brought into existence.


Isis is the Greek name for the Hathor the Goddess who is associated
 with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there are indications that Hathor
  and Sekhmet are one and the same Goddess.


Day one is the Holy day of Re.  The great
 feast of all gods and goddesses is on day six. Procession of
  Bast and the birth of Nut is day ten.



3)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) third lunar month
 is Hwt-Hrw/Athyr(Hathys).  
  Sacred to Hathor, the cow Goddess of joy, motherhood, love,
   and the Eye of Ra.  Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the
    Goddess who is associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and
     there are indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one
      and the same Goddess.

Day one are the Feasts of Hathor and Re. Feast of the gods
 of the black mud of Egypt (Kemet) is day six.  Day 7 is the
  monthly feast of Re.  On day twelve: Osiris goes out of
   Abydos; Purification of the Gods' and Goddesses' hearts;
    Feast of Hapy, (Hapy is the Nile during inundation.)
     Offerings are given to the Nile on this day.



4)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) fourth lunar month is
 Ka-Hr-Ka/Ka-Hr-Ka/Choiak(Choiach).
  Sacred to Sekhet/Sekhmet/Sekhtet, the lion headed sun
   Goddess of sunset, destruction, death, ending, wisdom,
    sexuality, transformation, magick, healing, surgery;
     wife of Ptah and mother of Nefertem.  


In the creation myth called the Memphite Theology the
 Goddess Sekhmet creates all other Goddesses and Gods
  and brings into existence everthing that her consort
   the God Ptah thinks or says.


Day one is the Feast of Re and Sekhmet.  Feast for all
 gods is day two.  Feast of Sekhmet-Bast-Re is day fifteen.
  The Mysteries of Isis and Osiris were celebrated through
   a series of elaborate rituals. These rituals depicted the
    Lamenting of Isis over the death of Osiris, the
     resurrection of Osiris through the power of Isis, and
      the impregnation of Isis by the resurrected Osiris.

Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the Goddess who is associated
 with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there are indications that Hathor
  and Sekhmet are one and the same Goddess.  This may be the
   reason why The Mysteries of Isis and Osiris were celebrated
    this month.


5)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) fifth lunar month is
 Sf-Bdt/tA-aAbt/Tybi.  Sacred to Khopry/Menu/Amsu,
  the winged beetle God that appears from the mud
   flats arising out of the Nile's inundation.  

Day one is the Feast of Re, Feast of Bast, Feast of Shu,
 and The Heb-Sed (Jubilee) Festival.  The Feast of Sekhmet
  Placing the Flame Before the Great Ones is on day seven.  
   Day eighteen commemorates the going forth of the Netjeru
    of Abydos. The Navigation festival of the Distant Goddess
     Sekhmet (the Eye of Ra) from the southern lands starts on
      day 19 and is celebrated over several days.  After the
       Winter Solstice the Sun (representing the Eye of Ra)
        is seen as turning and beginning its annual journey to
         the north.  Sekhmet begins Her transformation back into
          the beautiful Goddess Hathor/Hwt-Hrw.  On the 23rd day
           is the Festival of Goddess Neith - revered Mother of
            the Gods and personification of the ancinet waters
             from which creation arose.


6)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) sixth lunar month is
 Rekh Wer/(pA-n) mhr/Mechir(Menchir).
  Sacred to Rekeh/Heru-Wer the Great Fire God,
   He who is in the sky.  

Day one is the Festival of Little Heat
 (left eye of Re.) and the Feast of Ptah lifting
  up Re with his hands.  On day eight is the Feast
   of the Great Heat (Right eye of Re), the "Great
    Burning" or Djaret ("Ancient") festival, held
     in honor of Rekeh/Heru-Wer.  There is also the
      Feast of Hathor.  There is a Feast to Sekhmet
       on the last day.

Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the Goddess who is
 associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there are
  indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one and
   the same Goddess.


7)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemetic) seventh lunar month is
 Rekh Neds/pA-n-Imn Htpw/Phamenoth(Famenoth).
  Sacred to Rekeh-Sheri/Rekeh-Netches/Heru-sa-Aset the
   Little Fire Goddess, She who is the Eye of Heru.  

Day one is The Feast of Ra and the Eye of Ra.  Amun's
 Festival of Ra Entering Nut (the Sky) is on Day 3.
  There is a Festival of Nut on day eighteen.

In honor of Rekeh-Sheri "The Lesser Burning" Festival
 is held this month.  It honors the return of the light
  begun last month and culminating this month.  There
   is a a light for Ra and His Eye, the protectress of
    the lands Who is returning and bringing Her joy back
      to us.


8)The Ancient Egyptian eighth lunar month is
 (Pa-N)/ Rnnwtt/Pharmuthi.
  Sacred to Rennutet the snake Goddess of
   granaries, fertility, nourishment,
    and good harvests.


Day one is the Feast of Re.  Day two is the Day
 of Chewing Onions for Bast and a Feast of Pakhet
  as Eye of Ra.  On day 11 there is a celebration
   of the birth of Ihy, the son of Hathor/Hwt-Hrw
    and Horus the Elder/Heru-Ur, as the Lord of
     passion and joy.


Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the Goddess who
 is associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there
  are indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one
   and the same Goddess.   


9)The Kemet ninth lunar month (I Shomu) is
   Hnsw (PA-n-)/xnsw/Pachons.  
    Sacred to Khonsu/Khensu the falcon headed moon God who is the decider
     of the life span, also the God of time, knowledge, healing, and giver
      of oracles.  Day one is the Feast for Re, Horus, and Renemutet.
       Feast Of The Uadjet Eye is day seven.


10)The Kemet tenth lunar month (II Shomu) is
    Hnt-Htj/pA-n-Int/Payni.  
     Sacred to Khenthy/Kentamenti/Khenti/Khenti-Amenti/Khenti-Amentiu/,
      the wolf/funerary God who embodied all deceased kings buried at
       Abydos and assimilated with Anibus and then Osiris. He is one
        of the husbands of the vulture-Goddess Nekhbet.  Day one is
         the Feast for Re, Horus, and Bast.  Feast Of The Uadjet Eye
          is day seven.  During this month there was the Candle Feast
           of Hathor.  A sacred flame was kept burning every day as
            part of the rituals dedicated to Hathor/Hwt-Hrw.

Isis is the Greek name for Hathor, the Goddess who
 is associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there
  are indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one
   and the same Goddess.


11)The Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) eleventh lunar month is
 Ipt Hmt/Ipip/Epiphi(Epipy).
  Sacred to the God Ipt/Apt-Taui, referenced in the
   Book of the Am-Tuat his hands and arms are concealed.

The Festivals to Hathor and Bast are held the first day
 and this is the Day of the great feast of the southern
  heavens for Re.  Also on day one is the start of the
   Festival of the Beautiful Embrace.  This festival is
    also known as the "Reunion of Hathor/Hwt-Hrw and
     Horus/Heru" as well as "She is Lead Back".  Extending
      over a two week period, it is one of the most important
       festivals and celebrates the voyage of Hathor to visit
        Her lover Horus. The two lovers conceive their son
         Ihy during this festival. The Goddesses Hathor and
          Bast feast in their Houses Of Life on day two.


Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the Goddess who is
 associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there are
  indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one and the
   same Goddess.


In some parts of ancient Egypt the somber rites of the
 presentation of the first sheaf of harvest wheat to
  the God Min took place at Summer Solstice.



12)The Kemet twelth lunar month (IV Shomu) is
    Wep-Renpet/mswt-Ra/Mesore.  
     Sacred to Horus/Heru/AAkhuti, the falcon shaped
      sky God of order, justice,ruler of the day, east
       and the rising Sun with eyes of the moon and sun.  
        Day one is the Festival for Re.  Day two is Sacred
         to Ma'at.  Feast of Raet and Feast of Hathor
          as Sirius is day three.

Isis is the Greek name for Hathor the Goddess who is
 associated with the Goddess Sekhmet, and there are
  indications that Hathor and Sekhmet are one and the
   same Goddess.


13)The Kemet thirteenth lunar Intercalary Month is
    Djehuty/Djehuty/Thoth(Thuthy).
     Sacred to Thoth/Tekhi/Tehuti,
      the ibis-headed moon God of truth, writing,
       and figuring things.  Day one is the Feast
        of Thoth, Opet: The marriage of Ammon-Re
         to his wife Ammonet.  The Birth of Aten
          is day three.

 

For more information on Kemet
 http://www.kemet.org/home.html



For more info on the calendar and festivals for each month
  http://www.per-ankh.org/
   http://www.per-ankh.org/calendar/calendar.html




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